From handcrafted to deep features for pedestrian detection: A survey
IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Pedestrian detection is an important but challenging problem in computer vision, especially in human-centric tasks. Over the past decade, significant improvement has been witnessed with the help of handcrafted features and deep features. Here we present a comprehensive survey on recent advances in pedestrian detection. First, we provide a detailed review of single-spectral pedestrian detection that includes handcrafted features based methods and deep features based approaches. For handcrafted features based methods, we present an extensive review of approaches and find that handcrafted features with large freedom degrees in shape and space have better performance. In the case of deep features based approaches, we split them into pure CNN based methods and those employing both handcrafted and CNN based features. We give the statistical analysis and tendency of these methods, where feature enhanced, part-aware, and post-processing methods have attracted main attention. In addition to single-spectral pedestrian detection, we also review multi-spectral pedestrian detection, which provides more robust features for illumination variance. Furthermore, we introduce some related datasets and evaluation metrics, and compare some representative methods. We conclude this survey by emphasizing open problems that need to be addressed and highlighting various future directions. Researchers can track an up-to-date list at https://github.com/JialeCao001/PedSurvey. Copyright © 2020, The Authors. All rights reserved.
Feature extraction, Proposals, Cameras, Deep learning, Task analysis, Object detection, Support vector machines
J. Cao, Y. Pang, J. Xie, F. S. Khan and L. Shao, "From Handcrafted to Deep Features for Pedestrian Detection: A Survey," in IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, doi: 10.1109/TPAMI.2021.3076733.