Simple Primitives With Feasibility- and Contextuality-Dependence for Open-World Compositional Zero-Shot Learning

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IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence


The task of Open-World Compositional Zero-Shot Learning (OW-CZSL) is to recognize novel state-object compositions in images from all possible compositions, where the novel compositions are absent during the training stage. The performance of conventional methods degrades significantly due to the large cardinality of possible compositions. Some recent works consider simple primitives (i.e., states and objects) independent and separately predict them to reduce cardinality. However, it ignores the heavy dependence between states, objects, and compositions. In this paper, we model the dependence via feasibility and contextuality. Feasibility-dependence refers to the unequal feasibility of compositions, e.g., hairy is more feasible with cat than with building in the real world. Contextuality-dependence represents the contextual variance in images, e.g., cat shows diverse appearances when it is dry or wet. We design Semantic Attention (SA) to capture the feasibility semantics to alleviate impossible predictions, driven by the visual similarity between simple primitives. We also propose a generative Knowledge Disentanglement (KD) to disentangle images into unbiased representations, easing the contextual bias. Moreover, we complement the independent compositional probability model with the learned feasibility and contextuality compatibly. In the experiments, we demonstrate our superior or competitive performance, SA-and-kD-guided Simple Primitives (SAD-SP), on three benchmark datasets.

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Attention network, compositional zero-shot learning, generative network, knowledge disentanglement, open world

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