Ground-to-aerial image geo-localization with a hard exemplar reweighting triplet loss

Sudong Cai, National University of Defense Technology
Yulan Guo, National University of Defense Technology
Salman Khan, Inception Institute of Artificial Intelligence
Jiwei Hu, Wuhan University of Technology
Gongjian Wen, National University of Defense Technology


The task of ground-to-aerial image geo-localization can be achieved by matching a ground view query image to a reference database of aerial/satellite images. It is highly challenging due to the dramatic viewpoint changes and unknown orientations. In this paper, we propose a novel in-batch reweighting triplet loss to emphasize the positive effect of hard exemplars during end-to-end training. We also integrate an attention mechanism into our model using feature-level contextual information. To analyze the difficulty level of each triplet, we first enforce a modified logistic regression to triplets with a distance rectifying factor. Then, the reference negative distances for corresponding anchors are set, and the relative weights of triplets are computed by comparing their difficulty to the corresponding references. To reduce the influence of extreme hard data and less useful simple exemplars, the final weights are pruned using upper and lower bound constraints. Experiments on two benchmark datasets show that the proposed approach significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.