The practical deployment of federated learning (FL) over wireless networks requires balancing energy efficiency and convergence time due to the limited available resources of devices. Prior art on FL often trains deep neural networks (DNNs) to achieve high accuracy and fast convergence using 32 bits of precision level. However, such scenarios will be impractical for resource-constrained devices since DNNs typically have high computational complexity and memory requirements. Thus, there is a need to reduce the precision level in DNNs to reduce the energy expenditure. In this paper, a green-quantized FL framework, which represents data with a finite precision level in both local training and uplink transmission, is proposed. Here, the finite precision level is captured through the use of quantized neural networks (QNNs) that quantize weights and activations in fixed-precision format. In the considered FL model, each device trains its QNN and transmits a quantized training result to the base station. Energy models for the local training and the transmission with quantization are rigorously derived. To minimize the energy consumption and the number of communication rounds simultaneously, a multi-objective optimization problem is formulated with respect to the number of local iterations, the number of selected devices, and the precision levels for both local training and transmission while ensuring convergence under a target accuracy constraint. To solve this problem, the convergence rate of the proposed FL system is analytically derived with respect to the system control variables. Then, the Pareto boundary of the problem is characterized to provide efficient solutions using the normal boundary inspection method. Design insights on balancing the tradeoff between the two objectives are drawn from using the Nash bargaining solution and analyzing the derived convergence rate. Simulation results show that the proposed FL framework can reduce energy consumption until convergence by up to 52% compared to a baseline FL algorithm that represents data with full precision. © 2022, CC BY-NC-SA.
Design, Energy efficiency, Energy utilization, Multi-objective optimization, Wireless networks
M. Kim, W. Saad, M. Mozaffari, and M. Debbah, "Green, Quantized Federated Learning over Wireless Networks: An Energy-Efficient Design", 2022, arXiv:2207.09387