BlockSC: A Blockchain Empowered Spatial Crowdsourcing Service in Metaverse While Preserving User Location Privacy

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IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications


Spatial crowdsourcing (SC) has become a fundamental and emerging technology in Metaverse, facilitating the creation of immersive experiences through location-based services. In these systems, a central SC server leverages SC workers who physically travel to task locations to gather spatiotemporal environment data. However, conventional SC systems face two significant challenges: (1) the SC server, functioning as a centralized authority, can sometimes be unreliable, either due to intentional or unintentional misconduct, and (2) to ensure efficient task assignment and validation, the location privacy of tasks and workers is openly accessible. In this study, we formally define location privacy preserved proof generation and verification problem (LP-PGVP) within an SC task matching scenario, with the aim to the above two challenges. Our proposed solution is a blockchain-based SC system (BlockSC), which provides a decentralized platform for task requesters and workers in the Metaverse context through calling smart contracts. We also introduce a ciphertext-based task matching scheme where task location access is granted only to eligible workers executing a task, benefiting from the design of geographic coordinate transformation and bilinear mapping methodology. To further demonstrate the task matching scheme’s operation and impact, we present an easy-to-understand case study. Our evaluation findings confirm that the proposed system effectively maintains location privacy for both SC workers and task requesters, without a considerable sacrifice in task matching efficiency.



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blockchain, Blockchains, Crowdsourcing, Location based service, location privacy, Metaverse, Metaverse, Privacy, Servers, Spatiotemporal phenomena, Task analysis, task assignment

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